White and Green Papers

The Step Inititiative - Always stay informed

White Papers state and explain StEP’s position on issues related to e-waste, make recommendations based on scientific research, and provide guidance to relevant stakeholders and decision makers.

Green Papers present scientific research findings and/or results, as well as provide science-based suggestions on e-waste-related topics in order to stimulate discussion and gather feedback, both inside and outside of StEP.


White Papers

ISSN: 2071-3576 (Online)

Developing Legislative Principles for e-waste policy in developing and emerging countries


Governments around the world are developing e-waste policies and legislation to deal with the growth of end-of-life electrical and electronic products. The paper presents core legal principles based on Extended Producer Responsibility (EPR) that can be reviewed, contextualised, and adapted by decision makers in countries around the world in order to avoid a ‘copy-paste’ approach from post-industrialised to industrialising country legislation.

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Guiding Principles to Develop E-waste Management Systems and Legislation


The guiding principles are intended to provide guidance to all stakeholders mainly in developing countries to define solutions for e-waste management.  The principles resulted from the compilation of a SWOT analysis of 13 existing e-waste management systems and pieces of legislation enacted in various regions of the world.

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Recommendations for Standards Development for Collection, Storage, Transport and Treatment of E-waste


As the sales of electronic and electrical devices increase, so does the amount of e-waste that needs to be handled as devices break, become obsolete or are no longer useful to their current owner. Improperly handled devices can lead to the loss of resources, worker and community exposure to hazardous materials and toxic chemicals, as well as environmental damage by wastes and other emissions that can occur during material recovery. The paper presents StEPs recommendations for a comprehensive approach to responsible e-waste management including responsible collection, handling, treatment and disposal.

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Green Papers

ISSN: 2219-6579 (Online)

Leaded Glass from Cathode Ray Tubes (CRTs)


As a result of the replacement of cathode ray tube screens (CRTs) by flat screens, the world is confronted with stranded end-of-life CRTs, which contain 1 to 1.5 kg of lead per screen. The paper provides a critical review of products in which CRT leaded glass can replace raw materials as well as current disposal options.

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Effect of Waste Legislation on TBM of EEE Destined for Reuse


Transboundary shipment legislations influence the movement of used electrical and electronic equipment (UEEE) destined for reuse and/or refurbishment, specifically affecting the electronic refurbishment industry’s point of view. The report examines (i) current international legislation regarding transboundary shipment of e-waste; (ii) case study experiences from stakeholders in the electronics industry collected from survey and interviews; and (iii) various models and practices adopted by reuse organizations to handle the proliferation of electrical and electronic equipment (EEE).

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Reuse Potential - Evaluation of Reuse Opportunities within WEEE Compliance Schemes


The study compares and contrasts the e-waste management systems in countries/ states where reuse is operating successfully (eg United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and Belgium). Further it conducts an analysis of the sources of e-waste within these systems. It facilitates the identification of specific success factors and barriers for reuse within these e-waste management systems from a multi-stakeholder perspective; and provides generic recommendations on changes to the e-waste management systems that would promote reuse in any jurisdiction.

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